CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF PROTECTIVE ROLE OF PLANTS AGAINST GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY

Indian Journal of Environmental Sciences 21(1), 2017, pp. 1-34 ISSN 0971-8958 – Green Earth Foundation
CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF PROTECTIVE ROLE OF PLANTS AGAINST GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY
Nirmala Yadav, Shweta Sharma1*, Subhasini Sharma  and K.P. Sharma
Botany Department, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur -302004
Zoology Department, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur -302004
*Author for correspondence

Abstract

Nephrotoxicity is one of the most common kidney problems caused by variety of toxic compounds.Gentamicin (GM) is a broad spectrum aminoglycoside commonly used for controlling life threateninginfections caused by Gram (+ve) and Gram (-ve) bacilli. However, it causes nephrotoxicity in about 15-30% of treated subjects. Because of superiority of gentamicin in controlling life threatening infections,scientific community is exploring renoprotective role of plant species to minimize gentamicin inducednephrotoxicity.

In the present review, we have critically evaluated studies made for exploring renoprotectiverole of 2 species of algae, 3 of fungi, 1 of gymnosperm and 145 of angiosperms in the experimental animalsexposed to gentamicin (GM). Histopathological findings of kidney are not considered in this review sincethese are merely descriptive (qualitative) and therefore, comparison among plant species is difficult foridentifying the most promising renoprotective plant species.

Ameliorating role of plant species has beenconsidered in view of protection/recovery in the serum biochemical parameters deciphering kidney functions(urea, creatinine, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen) and oxidative stress (MDA/LPO, GSH/GPX, CAT,SOD). Out of 151species screened in the gentamicin treated animals, majority (108 species) wererenoprotective (moderate – excellent) and reduce oxidative stress. It is likely that they differ in biomolecules.Plant species of excellent category may therefore, be explored for their ameliorative role to othernephrotoxicants both singly as well as in various combinations.

The recommended dose of gentamicin forhuman is 20µg/kg body weight while several plant species were excellent in term of protection to experimentalanimals even at its higher doses (80-100mg/kg body weight), and therefore, there is a good scope for theirclinical trials in the human beings treated with gentamicin. Presence of renoprotective properties amongsuch a vast number of species highlights role of biodiversity in the welfare of mankind.

Key Words: Antioxidant, Creatinine, Gentamicin, Nephrotoxicant, Renoprotective plant species,

UreaKidney is the only organ in the body that removes metabolicwastes such as urea, creatinine, uric acid etc. from the bloodwhich are excreted through urine. Beside metabolic wastes;kidney also removes drugs and various toxic industrial andenvironmental agents in the blood. Because of increasedblood flow (25% of the cardiac output) and presence ofcellular transport systems within epithelial cells of the nephron,exposure to toxic substances is maximum in kidney.

As aresult, kidney related diseases are on rise particularly in therelatively more polluted areas.Nephrotoxicity is one of the most common kidney problemswith an estimated lifetime risk of 2-5% in Asia, 8-15% inEurope, America and around 20% in the Middle East. Itreduces glomerular filtration rate that raises level of bloodurea nitrogen (azotemia) and creatinine in the serum leadingto increased retention of fluids in the body (over hydration)and blood pressure (hypertension).

The ability of kidney to concentrate tubular fluid contents is ahallmark of renal function. The nephrotoxic compoundsdamage epithelial cells of tubules; thereby reduce urineconcentrating capacity or tubular proteinuria, lysosomalenzymuria and mild glucosuria, decrease ammonium excretionand increase hydrogen ion concentration in the blood(acidosis).

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